Born in Canzo,
Turati became interested in politics, being attracted to the democratic movement before joining the more specific Socialist groups. His most important sociological work of this period is Il Delitto e la Questione Sociale, in which he examines how social conditions affect crime. He met Anna Kulischov while working on a survey of social conditions in Naples. Kulischov was an exile from Russia who had become the companion of Andrea Costa, an Anarchist leader – when she converted to Socialism, Costa followed, sending an important letter to his anarchist comrades in which he abandoned the movement. Kulischov and Costa had split by the time she met Turati. The two immediately fell in
Turati and Anna Kulischov were the most instrumental intellectuals in the founding of the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) in 1892 (it took that name in 1895). They were reformists, believing that Socialism would come about gradually, primarily through action in the Italian Parliament,
In the years following the party's foundation, the Italian government attempted to suppress it. Turati advocated alliances with other Italian democratic forces, meant to defeat the government's reactionary
Under Prime Minister Luigi Pelloux, the country was governed by
The vote brought the incipient split in the party between right and left wings to a head, even if the Liberal government had allowed workers the right to strike, and despite the fact that the subsequent strike wave resulted in improved conditions in industry and on the land. Between 1901 and 1906, power in the party seesawed between the Turati-led reformists and the revolutionaries under various leaders. After 1906, splits surfaced among the reformists themselves. In 1912, as a result of Socialist reaction against the Italo-Turkish War (1911–1912), revolutionaries took over the party. Benito Mussolini, one of their leaders, became editor of the party newspaper Avanti!; Turati opposed Mussolini, but proved unable to dislodge him. He had opposed the
Following World War I, Mussolini created the paramilitary Fasci Italiani di Combattimento, Fascist Revolutionary Party, and then the National Fascist Party which came to power in 1922 (after its March on Rome). Filippo Turati and Anna Kulischov, who knew Mussolini well, were major opponents of
In 1926, Turati fled Italy in a dramatic escape to France – aided by Carlo Rosselli, Ferruccio Parri, Sandro Pertini (the future President of the Italian Republic) and Adriano Olivetti, of the eponymous typewriter company. In Paris, he was the soul of the non-Communist anti-fascist resistance,
After World War II, Turati's remains were transferred after to Milan's Cimitero Monumentale, where he is buried next to Anna Kulischov.
- "LA SPAVALDA OFFENSIVA E L' UMILIANTE 15 GIUGNO – IL PIAVE" (in Italian). Associazione incursori esercito. Retrieved 1 June 2008.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Filippo Turati.|
- Di Scala, Spencer (1980). Dilemmas of Italian Socialism: the Politics of Filippo Turati. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Amherst Press.